AMINO ACIDS AND INSULIN ARE BOTH NECESSARY FOR AN AMPLIFIED RESPONSE OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS THROUGH THE MAMMALIAN TARGET OF RAPAMYCIN SIGNALING PATHWAY

Open Access
Author:
Biegler , Jessica Marie
Graduate Program:
Integrative Biosciences
Degree:
Master of Science
Document Type:
Master Thesis
Date of Defense:
None
Committee Members:
  • Leonard Shelton Jefferson Jr., Thesis Advisor
Keywords:
  • Insulin
  • Amino acids
  • mTOR
  • Protein Synthesis
Abstract:
The regulation of cell growth and proliferation is compromised in many major human diseases and disorders in today’s society. Physicians, scientists, and healthcare workers are combating the challenges presented with cell growth regulation in areas of research involving cancer and diabetes. Mammalian target of rapamycin or mTOR is a protein kinase in a major pathway, which is mainly responsible for the proper control of cell growth and proliferation via the regulation of protein translation and ribosomal biogenesis. Integrated signals from nutrients, energy status, and growth factors activate the mTOR pathway to control many processes downstream of the kinase. New advances in the signaling cascade are allowing for novel insights into how mTOR is able to sense the diverse signals of the cell in order to regulate the functions under its control. Since mTOR is responsible for many of the regulatory aspects of ribosome biogenesis and translation, it is no surprise that it is the dysregulation of mTOR itself that results in an array of human disorders. This paper will explore the effects of depriving and/or replenishing the liver of amino acids and/ or insulin in the hopes of understanding how these nutrients and growth factors help to activate or inhibit the mTOR pathway.