Patriarchy, Militarization, and the Gender Gap in Education: The Case of Pakistan

Open Access
Author:
Azhar, Talat
Graduate Program:
Educational Theory and Policy
Degree:
Doctor of Education
Document Type:
Dissertation
Date of Defense:
December 15, 2008
Committee Members:
  • Suet Ling Pong, Dissertation Advisor
  • Suet Ling Pong, Committee Chair
  • David P Baker, Committee Member
  • Sandra Morgen, Committee Member
  • Kai Arthur Schafft, Committee Member
Abstract:
This study investigated the effects of patriarchy and militarization on women’s educational attainment in Pakistan, where the literacy rate is among the lowest in the world, roughly two-thirds of all women cannot read or write, and even modest goals of girls’ primary school enrollments seem elusive. Some progress has been made toward universal primary school enrollment, but by and large, secondary and tertiary education has remained beyond the reach of women in many parts of South Asia, including Pakistan. Efforts to improve women’s education in Pakistan have focused on issues related to underdevelopment, poverty, and religious fundamentalism. Consequently, most literature addresses school, family, and community factors as the primary barriers to participation in education. My thesis represents the first attempt at exploring the power relations emerging from patriarchy and militarization, and their collective contribution to gender differences in educational attainment in Pakistan. Using data from the Adolescent and Youth Survey of Pakistan, conducted by the Population Council and the government of Pakistan in 2001-2002, I have investigated the reasons for persistence in women’s low educational attainment. I used binary logistic regression to analyze three dependent variables: currently attending school, primary school completion, and ever attended school. Results of this study suggest that girls are at a distinct disadvantage relative to boys in educational attainment. Girls are also far less likely to seek an education because of perceived social undesirability of schooling and lack of empowerment to make decisions regarding their lives. A further analysis reveals that the disadvantages increase during the military government. The findings of this study have implications for providing policy direction toward achieving gender parity in education as a first step and subsequently striving for universal primary education in postcolonial conflict zones. More specifically, the findings point to a need to look beyond establishing girls’ primary schools for a solution to the education crisis.