Make-Up Time: A Study of Morning Grooming Time in the U.S.

Open Access
Lee, Ya-Ning
Graduate Program:
Industrial Relations and Human Resources
Master of Science
Document Type:
Master Thesis
Date of Defense:
May 09, 2008
Committee Members:
  • Robert Drago, Thesis Advisor
  • Samanthi Gunawardana, Thesis Advisor
  • Jennifer Lynn Hook, Thesis Advisor
  • make up
  • cosmetics
  • grooming
  • time use
The purpose of this paper is 1)to examine morning grooming time for American Women in the U.S., especially for employed women, 2) to discover whether, for career women who spend more time on morning grooming, what do they sacrifice to “make up” this time? And 3) to identify the factors that lead to differences in morning grooming time for women. Considering the requirements of work, social norms and manners, mate-selection preferences, it is found that several different factors result in divergence in grooming time for women. Make-up time has shown to be the most time-consuming activity in daily grooming. Thus I use the grooming time category from the American Time Use Survey as an approximation to make-up time in this analysis. First, I examine morning grooming time for three different groups: employed men, employed women and non-employed women, while considering parenting effects on both workday and non-workdays. The analysis shows that employed women spend an average of 43 minutes on grooming in the morning on workdays and more on non-workdays. Grooming time for non-employed women however, does not differ too much. Parenting effects contribute to a decrease in grooming time in the all three groups discussed in the paper. Second, from the examinations of the time allocation patterns among both employed woman and employed mothers, the time source for make-up activities in each group is observed, which is mainly from sleeping, household activities, socializing and relaxing, and caring for and helping household members. Finally, the analysis shows how other factors such as race, occupation, marital status, parental status, and employment status significantly influence morning grooming time for women.