Open Access
Voorhees, Christina Susan
Graduate Program:
Recreation, Park and Tourism Management
Doctor of Philosophy
Document Type:
Date of Defense:
May 14, 2007
Committee Members:
  • Harry C Zinn, Committee Chair
  • Alan R Graefe, Committee Member
  • Deborah Lee Kerstetter, Committee Member
  • Sanford Sherrick Smith, Committee Member
  • hunting participation
  • social support
  • hunting involvement
  • multiple activity participation
This study examined the underlying factors that contribute to hunting participation. My primary goal was to provide insight into the roles that involvement, social support, and participation in other activities play in hunting participation and to link these factors to existing patterns of hunting behavior and socio-demographic characteristics. My results are presented in three separate chapters. The first tested a path model of hunting participation. Involvement level was moderated by social support when predicting hunting participation. Years at current address, rurality, education, and age did not contribute to explaining hunting participation in the hierarchical regression model. The second chapter examined the effects of participation in multiple activities. A mixed-method approach was used to test the relationship between participation in hunting and other activities. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that increased hunting participation is predicted by higher levels of hunting involvement and increased participation in consumptive/hunting-related and motorized activities. Qualitative data suggest that hunters participated in a wide variety of activities. Level of involvement was related to activity choice where avid hunters tended to participate more in consumptive/hunting-related activities. The third chapter used qualitative data to examine the relationships between involvement, social support, and hunting participation. Level of involvement was related to participation in hunting and related activities, importance of hunting, and identification with hunting. However, not all responses displayed the same trends which suggest that level of involvement is related but may interact with other factors when predicting hunting participation. Direct social support seemed to have a significant positive influence on hunters’ participation behavior. Indirect social support was primarily perceived as having no influence on hunting participation. There was some evidence that social support was related to level of involvement but findings were inconsistent. Altogether, these findings suggest that involvement and social support are important predictors of hunting participation and help to extend current knowledge. The development of explicit measures to examine these factors is needed in order to use them in future models. Findings also suggest that participation in multiple activities is complex and does not necessarily inhibit participation in any one activity. Future research is needed that examines how multiple activities may overlap and afford participation in other activities.