THE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG PROCRASTINATION, ACHIEVEMENT, AND THE USE OF MOTIVATIONAL MESSAGES WITHIN AN ONLINE COURSE

Open Access
Author:
Morales, David Roberto
Graduate Program:
Instructional Systems
Degree:
Doctor of Philosophy
Document Type:
Dissertation
Date of Defense:
September 28, 2007
Committee Members:
  • Jill L Lane, Committee Chair
  • Kyle Leonard Peck, Committee Chair
  • Jonathan P Mathews, Committee Member
  • Hoi Kin Suen, Committee Member
Keywords:
  • Instructional Design
  • ARCS Model
  • Messages
  • Procrastination
  • Online Learning
  • Achievement
  • Motivation
Abstract:
This research study looked to determine the effects of interventions on procrastination behaviors, and to examine the effects of procrastination on the quality of student work. It was predicted that there would be a significant and positive relationship between procrastination and achievement. Significant positive correlations were predicted between procrastination measured by weekday, four-hour block, and two-hour block of reflection scores. Specifically, subjects who procrastinated on weekly lessons, for whatever reason, were predicted to be more likely to earn lower scores on the assignments than subjects who started earlier. This study used data collected in fall 2004, spring 2005, and summer 2005 from a student-centered online general education (WEB) course within the “A New Global Environment for Learning” (ANGEL) course management system at the Pennsylvania State University. A total of 3,329 data entries consisting of the time subjects started a weekly lesson and reflection assignment score for the fall and spring data (cohort one) were used to examine the relationship between procrastination and achievement. The relationship between motivational messages, procrastination, and achievement was examined using 221 data entries collected in the summer (cohort 2). Bivariate correlations, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and Chi Squares were used for the analysis of this study, which was a non-experimental design. The associations between the time lessons were started and the score earned for the reflective assignment was significant, but relatively weak. The associations between procrastination, exam grades, and final grades were not statistically significant. An additional method of examining the relationship between procrastination and achievement was to categorize data by weekday, four-hour block, and two-hour block of reflection scores. A significant positive correlation was observed between procrastination measured by weekday of reflection scores. In addition, a significant positive correlation was observed between procrastination measured 24 hours before the deadline by four-hour-blocks of reflection scores. A significant positive correlation was observed between procrastination measured eight hours before the deadline by two-hour blocks of reflection scores. The relationship between procrastination and achievement for male subjects and female subjects was examined. No significant correlation was observed between procrastination measured by weekday or four-hour block of reflection scores for female subjects. However, a significant positive correlation between procrastination measured by weekday of reflection scores for male subjects. In addition, a significant positive correlation was observed between procrastination measured 24 hours before the deadline by four-hour-block of reflection scores for male subjects. A significant positive correlation was observed between procrastination measured eight hours before the deadline by two-hour block of reflection scores for female subjects and for male subjects. No significant differences were observed between the use of a message, procrastination, and scores for reflection assignments. Don’t assume that procrastination is a significant contributor to achievement. The time an assignment was started may have been determined by competing external pressures. Instructors, researchers, and instructional designers need to examine why and how learners schedule time based on competing pressures. Interventions can be designed to assist learners in managing competing pressures so the focus can be on learning.