A Meta-Analytic Assessment of the Use of Rehearsal Strategies in the Program of Systematic Evaluation

Open Access
Baker, Rose Marie
Graduate Program:
Instructional Systems
Doctor of Philosophy
Document Type:
Date of Defense:
February 22, 2006
Committee Members:
  • Francis M Dwyer Jr., Committee Chair
  • Roy Clariana, Committee Member
  • Hoi Kin Suen, Committee Member
  • Wesley Edward Donahue, Committee Member
  • program of systematic evaluation
  • item analysis
  • rehearsal strategy
  • hierarchical linear modeling
  • meta-analysis
  • instructional design
The goal of this research study was to synthesize the use of knowledge generation and discrimination tasks as methods of overt and covert rehearsal as used within studies in the Program of Systematic Evaluation and determine if there were interactions of these rehearsal strategies with the employment of visuals, the medium chosen for presentation, and the type of test used to assess achievement of the specific educational objectives. More than 350 published articles, conference proceedings, dissertations, and masters papers were reviewed from the Program of Systematic Evaluation; of which, 50 studies (9,620 participants) were analyzed using meta-analytic techniques and hierarchical linear modeling. For properly positioned rehearsal strategies, the unconditional level-1 model resulted in a statistically significant estimated mean population effect size of 0.21 for paper-based and screen presentation instructional environments and the conditional level-2 model resulted in a statistically significant estimated mean population effect size of 0.34 for computer-based instructional environments. The other researched conditions were not statistically significant predictors of the estimated mean population effect size. The employment of item analysis to determine the position for the rehearsal strategies results in savings for time and money and increased learner achievement. For a learner that would score 50% on any of the criterion measures for the specific educational objectives without interaction with any rehearsal strategy, directing the learner’s attention using properly positioned knowledge generation or discrimination tasks and overt or covert rehearsal strategies, with or without visuals that are black and white or colored, results in scores between 56.0% and 60.6% for paper-based materials or screen presentations and between 52.6% and 73.1% for computer-based instructional environments.