Modeling of Inverted Annular Film Boiling Using an Integral Method

Open Access
Author:
Sridharan, Arunkumar
Graduate Program:
Mechanical Engineering
Degree:
Doctor of Philosophy
Document Type:
Dissertation
Date of Defense:
June 30, 2005
Committee Members:
  • Dr L E Hochreiter, Committee Chair
  • Fan Bill B Cheung, Committee Chair
  • Anil Kamalakant Kulkarni, Committee Member
  • Thomas Fu Yuan Lin, Committee Member
Keywords:
  • Reactor Safety
  • Two-Phase heat transfer
  • Inverted Annular Film Boiling
  • Modeling of Two-Phase flows
  • Integral Method
Abstract:
In modeling Inverted Annular Film Boiling (IAFB), several important phenomena such as interaction between the liquid and the vapor phases and irregular nature of the interface, which greatly influence the momentum and heat transfer at the interface, need to be accounted for. However, due to the complexity of these phenomena, they were not modeled in previous studies. Since two-phase heat transfer equations and relationships rely heavily on experimental data, many closure relationships that were used in previous studies to solve the problem are empirical in nature. Also, in deriving the relationships, the experimental data were often extrapolated beyond the intended range of conditions, causing errors in predictions. In some cases, empirical correlations that were derived from situations other than IAFB, and whose applicability to IAFB was questionable, were used. Moreover, arbitrary constants were introduced in the model developed in previous studies to provide good fit to the experimental data. These constants have no physical basis, thereby leading to questionable accuracy in the model predictions. In the present work, modeling of Inverted Annular Film Boiling (IAFB) is done using Integral Method. Two-dimensional formulation of IAFB is presented. Separate equations for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy are derived from first principles, for the vapor film and the liquid core. Turbulence is incorporated in the formulation. The system of second-order partial differential equations is integrated over the radial direction to obtain a system of integral differential equations. In order to solve the system of equations, second order polynomial profiles are used to describe the non-dimensional velocity and temperatures. The unknown coefficients in the profiles are functions of the axial direction alone. Using the boundary conditions that govern the physical problem, equations for the unknown coefficients are derived in terms of the primary dependent variables: wall shear stress, interfacial shear stress, film thickness, pressure, wall temperature and the mass transfer rate due to evaporation. A system of non-linear first order coupled ordinary differential equations is obtained. Due to the inherent mathematical complexity of the system of equations, simplifying assumptions are made to obtain a numerical solution. The system of equations is solved numerically to obtain values of the unknown quantities at each subsequent axial location. Derived quantities like void fraction and heat transfer coefficient are calculated at each axial location. The calculation is terminated when the void fraction reaches a value of 0.6, the upper limit of IAFB. The results obtained agree with the experimental trends observed. Void fraction increases along the heated length, while the heat transfer coefficient drops due to the increased resistance of the vapor film as expected.