FINITE-DIFFERENCE TIME-DOMAIN SIMULATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC BANDGAP AND BI-ANISOTROPIC METAMATERIALS

Open Access
Author:
Bray, Matthew George
Graduate Program:
Electrical Engineering
Degree:
Doctor of Philosophy
Document Type:
Dissertation
Date of Defense:
August 29, 2005
Committee Members:
  • Douglas Henry Werner, Committee Chair
  • Anthony J Ferraro, Committee Member
  • Kultegin Aydin, Committee Member
  • Lyle Norman Long, Committee Member
Keywords:
  • chiral
  • electromagnetic bandgap
  • FDTD
  • bi-anisotropic
  • artifical magnetic conductor
Abstract:
The term "Metamaterial" has been introduced into the electromagnetic lexicon in recent years to describe new artificial materials with electromagnetic properties that are not found in naturally occurring materials. Metamaterials exhibit electromagnetic properties that are not observed in its constituent materials, and/or not observed in nature. This thesis will analyze two different classes of metamaterials through the use of the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique. The first class of metamaterials are artificial magnetic conductors (AMC) which approximate the behavior of a perfect magnetic conductor (PMC) over a finite frequency range. The AMC metamaterials are created through the use of an electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structure. A periodic FDTD code is used to simulate a full-wave model of the metallodielectric EBG structures. The AMCs developed with the aid of the FDTD tool are then used to create low-profile antenna systems consisting of a dipole antenna in close proximity to an AMC surface. Through the use of this FDTD tool, several original contributions were made to the electromagnetic community. These include the first dual-band independently tunable EBG AMC ground plane and the first linearly polarized single-band and dual-band tunable antenna/EBG systems. The second class of materials analyzed are bi-anisotropic metamaterials. Bi-anisotropic media are the largest class of linear media which is able to describe the macroscopic material properties of artificial dielectrics, artificial magnetics, artificial chiral materials, left-handed materials, and other composite materials. The dispersive properties of these materials can be approximated by the oscillator model. This model assumes a Lorentzian frequency profile for the permittivity and permeability and a Condon model for chirality. A new FDTD formulation is introduced which can simulate this type of bi-anisotropic media. This FDTD method incorporates the dispersive material properties through a Z-transform technique derived from the constitutive relations for bi-anisotropic media. This is the first FDTD formulation to be able to simulate dispersive chiral media on a single FDTD grid. This tool was also used to perform the first simulations of dispersive chiral frequency selective surfaces.