Open Access
Chen, Ying-Ni
Graduate Program:
Workforce Education and Development
Doctor of Philosophy
Document Type:
Date of Defense:
April 20, 2005
Committee Members:
  • David Lynn Passmore, Committee Chair
  • Kenneth Gray, Committee Member
  • Judith Ann Kolb, Committee Member
  • Edgar Paul Yoder, Committee Member
  • Employment Outcomes
  • Mid-Career Women
  • Job Training
  • Workforce Development
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between job training participation and wage effects among women at mid-career in the United States. This study used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women (NLSW) to explore whether mid-career women¡¦s participation in job training is related to their demographic characteristics, education, and work experiences. The employment outcomes in terms of hourly wage rates associated with job training participation among women at late career were also investigated. First, significant relationships were found between participation in job training and race, education, occupation, and typical length of work duration each year among women at mid-career. Whites were more likely than non-Whites to participate in both on-the-job (OJT) training and other training courses or educational programs (Other training). Women with education beyond high school were more likely to receive OJT and other training than those who were high school graduates or less. Women who were employed in professional, managerial, or technical occupations were more likely to receive both OJT and other training than those who worked in other occupations. In addition, women who typically worked for longer durations each year had greater odds of receiving job training than those who worked a shorter duration each year. Second, a significantly positive relationship was found between mid-career women¡¦s participation in OJT over their working life and their hourly wage rates. However, participation in other training showed no significant relationship with wage rates. Findings from this study also revealed that women who were White, had a higher education degree, worked in the manufacturing industry, worked in a professional, managerial, or technical occupation, and typically worked a longer duration each year, tended to receive a higher hourly rate of pay. Based on these findings, several recommendations may be offered. 1. There is a need to close the gap in post-school training acquisition for women who tend to receive less training. 2. These findings support the need to continually promote continuing education programs and training services for mid-career women. 3. The goal of training policies should be to improve women¡¦s job placements. Also, training policies should serve to enhance women¡¦s employability and job mobility after the usual schooling age, when they may work longer and thus remain longer in the labor market.