development of lithium powder based anode with conductive carbon materials for lithium batteries

Open Access
Author:
Park, Mansu
Graduate Program:
Materials Science and Engineering
Degree:
Doctor of Philosophy
Document Type:
Dissertation
Date of Defense:
January 26, 2016
Committee Members:
  • Chao Yang Wang, Dissertation Advisor
  • Chao Yang Wang, Committee Chair
  • Michael Anthony Hickner, Committee Member
  • Seong Han Kim, Committee Member
  • Donghai Wang, Committee Member
Keywords:
  • lithium batteries
  • lithium powder
  • lithium dendrite
  • lithium cycling efficiency
  • Cycling performance
  • Internal short
Abstract:
Current lithium ion battery with a graphite anode shows stable cycle performance and safety. However, the lithium ion battery still has the limitation of having a low energy density caused by the application of lithium intercalated cathode and anode with low energy density. The combination of high capacity non-lithiated cathode such as sulfur and carbon and lithium metal anode has been researched for a long time to maximize battery’s energy density. However, this cell design also has a lot of technical challenges to be solved. Among the challenges, lithium anode’s problem related to lithium dendrite growth causing internal short and low cycling efficiency is very serious. Thus, extensive research on lithium metal anode has been performed to solve the lithium dendrite problem and a major part of the research has been focused on the control of the interface between lithium and electrolyte. However, research on lithium anode design itself has not been much conducted. In this research, innovative lithium anode design for less dendrite growth and higher cycling efficiency was suggested. Literature review for the lithium dendrite growth mechanism was conducted in Chapter 2 to develop electrode design concept and the importance of the current density on lithium dendrite growth was also found in the literature. The preliminary test was conducted to verify the developed electrode concept by using lithium powder based anode (LIP) with conductive carbon materials and the results showed that lithium dendrite growth could be suppressed in this electrode design due to its increased electrochemical surface area and lithium deposition sites during lithium deposition. The electrode design suggested in Chapter 2 was extensively studied in Chapter 3 in terms of lithium dendrite growth morphology, lithium cycling efficiency and full cell cycling performance. This electrode concept was further developed to maximize the electrode’s performance and safety in Chapter 4. In this new electrode design, electrically isolated super-p carbon agglomerates in the electrode were effectively reduced by adding conductive fillers such as graphite and further improvement in cycling performance and safety was also verified. The lithium powder based anode with conductive carbon materials is very useful concept as an alternative anode design instead of pure lithium metal anode for high energy density lithium batteries such as lithium-sulfur and lithium-air. As shown in Chapter 5, this electrode concept can be further developed and optimized through the application of new carbon materials and structure.