Science fiction meets scientific inquiry: A task-technology fit/computer-based training framework and a meta-analysis of virtual reality applications for intervention, training, and therapy purposes

Open Access
Howard, Matthew Caleb
Graduate Program:
Doctor of Philosophy
Document Type:
Date of Defense:
October 05, 2015
Committee Members:
  • Rick R Jacobs, Dissertation Advisor
  • James Marshall Lebreton, Committee Member
  • Samuel Todd Hunter, Committee Member
  • Michael J Rovine, Special Member
  • Training
  • Therapy
  • Intervention
  • Computer-Based Training
  • Task-Technology Fit
  • Virtual Reality
  • Head Mounted Displays
In the current document, an integrative CBT-TTF framework is created, which proposes: technologies that require large amounts of working memory are best at improving outcomes that require little working memory to develop, and vice versa. Then, a meta-analysis of virtual reality (VR) training programs (which require great amounts of working memory) is performed to test their effectiveness across various outcomes. VR training programs are more effective as the outcome’s working memory requirement decreases; however, these results are only true for cognitive outcomes, most important to organizational researchers, and new theories are needed to understand the effect of technologies on developing social, emotional, and physical outcomes. Further, I also perform a meta-analysis which demonstrates that specialized display hardware (i.e. head-mounted displays, surround screen displays, etc.), video game elements (i.e. score, competition, etc.), workplace samples, and no-treatment control groups positively impact VR intervention effectiveness. Alternatively, specialized input hardware (i.e. motion sensors, floor pads, etc.), multi-user environments, child samples, and special samples have no effect on VR intervention effectiveness. Together, these results can guide future research and practice in creating more effective VR interventions for developing cognitive, social, emotional, and physical outcomes.