Naturally concentrated methionine-rich feedstuffs for organic broiler production

Open Access
Author:
Li, Shurong
Graduate Program:
Animal Science
Degree:
Master of Science
Document Type:
Master Thesis
Date of Defense:
July 07, 2015
Committee Members:
  • Paul H Patterson, Thesis Advisor
  • Ralph Michael Hulet, Thesis Advisor
  • Kevin John Harvatine, Thesis Advisor
Keywords:
  • organic broiler production
  • high-methionine corn
  • naked oats
  • post-extracted algae residue
  • Black Soldier Fly prepupae
Abstract:
Methionine (Met) is considered the first limiting amino acid (AA) for broilers fed a practical corn-soybean meal diet (Burley, 2012). The current limitation on synthetic Met inclusion in organic poultry diets could lead to reduced bird growth and subsequent economic losses (Fanatico, 2010). Therefore, the primary focus of this thesis was to determine the nutritive value of Met-rich feedstuffs, namely high-Met corn (HMC), triticale, naked oats (NO), lentils, de-hulled screw-pressed sunflower seeds meal (SSM), Black Soldier Fly (BSF) prepupae meal, and post-extracted algae residue (PEAR) as well as evaluate the feeding value of several selected ingredients, i.e. HMC, NO, BSF, and PEAR in broilers. Results from thesis studies indicated that the most Met-rich feedstuffs by ingredient type are NO [15.5% crude protein (CP) and 0.24% Met] as a plant energy ingredient, SSM (48% CP and 1.04% Met) as a plant protein ingredients, and the BSF prepupae meal (42.2% CP and 0.85% Met) as an unconventional ingredient, on an “as is” basis. This research consisted of three primary studies. First, a feeding and digestibility trial demonstrated that NO could successfully replace corn as the major dietary energy source in organic broiler diets with 0.1% lower synthetic Met supplementation. In particular, supplementing 0.05% Rovabio Excel AP10 (R) [an organically approved combination of 19 enzymes] alone (NO+R) or together with 0.025% Optiphos (O) [a phytase] (NO+R+O) enhanced apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP (P < 0.0001) and Met (P < 0.0001) in the organic naked oat based diets and improved 21 d body weight gain (BWG), 10-21 d feed conversion ratio (FCR), overall BWG, and FCR, equal to that of the corn/soybean (CS) control. In the second study, a BSF prepupae meal was prepared by washing, drying and grinding BSF prepupae fed a mixture of 80% hen manure and 20% kitchen waste. The effects of increasing dietary levels (0, 2, 4, and 6%) of BSF on broiler performance were evaluated. Results indicated that BSF was a suitable nutrient supplement for poultry due to its high CP (42.2%) and favorable AA profile (e.g. 0.24% Met) by benefiting broilers at a moderate inclusion rate (4% BSF) to obtain optimal growth and performance comparable to that of the CS diet; however, the high ash (12.34%), and calcium (6.09%) contents need to be considered when formulating diets. In the third study, the AID and true ileal digestibility (TID) of AA and jejunum digesta viscosity of five HMC hybrids, i.e. Corn-F, Corn-V, Corn-614, Corn-6360, and Corn-6150, and PEAR were determined in 35-d-old broilers to enable these ingredients to be incorporated into organic poultry diets on a digestible AA basis. Among the corn hybrids, the CP contents ranged from 9.12% for C-614 to 7.33% for Corn-F, and the crude fiber (CF) contents ranged from 2.69% for Corn-F to 2.20% for both Corn-614 and Corn-6150, on an “as is” basis, respectively. As for Met digestibility, results showed that Corn-F had the highest AID (72.59%) while Corn-6360 had the highest TID (107.33%). Post-extracted algae residue was reported to contain 30.2% CP, 9.08% CF, 10.4% ash, 0.48% Met, and 3.34% sodium, on an “as is” basis, respectively. The high AID of CP (90.13%) were favorable; however, low AID of CF (18.65%) and Met (35.33%), and low TID of Met (47.25%) indicated that the non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in PEAR might contribute to the high viscosity of the jejunum digesta (1.08 cPs) and the low CF and AA digestibility. The current thesis adds more data to the understanding of naturally high-Met feedstuffs as alternative strategies to synthetic Met for organic broiler production.