Experimental Investigation of the Noise Reduction of Supersonic Exhaust Jets with Fluidic Inserts

Open Access
Powers, Russell
Graduate Program:
Aerospace Engineering
Doctor of Philosophy
Document Type:
Date of Defense:
June 16, 2015
Committee Members:
  • Dennis K Mc Laughlin, Dissertation Advisor/Co-Advisor
  • Dennis K Mc Laughlin, Committee Chair/Co-Chair
  • Philip John Morris, Committee Member
  • Kenneth Steven Brentner, Committee Member
  • Victor Ward Sparrow, Committee Member
  • Jet Noise
  • Supersonic
  • Aeroacoustics
  • Noise Reduction
The noise produced by the supersonic, high temperature jets that exhaust from military aircraft is becoming a hazard to naval personnel and a disturbance to communities near military bases. Methods to reduce the noise produced from these jets in a practical full-scale environment are difficult. The development and analysis of distributed nozzle blowing for the reduction of radiated noise from supersonic jets is described. Model scale experiments of jets that simulate the exhaust jets from typical low-bypass ratio military jet aircraft engines during takeoff are performed. Fluidic inserts are created that use distributed blowing in the divergent section of the nozzle to simulate mechanical, hardwall corrugations, while having the advantage of being an active control method. This research focuses on model scale experiments to better understand the fluidic insert noise reduction method. Distributed blowing within the divergent section of the military-style convergent divergent nozzle alters the shock structure of the jet in addition to creating streamwise vorticity for the reduction of mixing noise. Enhancements to the fluidic insert design have been performed along with experiments over a large number of injection parameters and core jet conditions. Primarily military-style round nozzles have been used, with preliminary measurements of hardwall corrugations and fluidic inserts in rectangular nozzle geometries also performed. It has been shown that the noise reduction of the fluidic inserts is most heavily dependent upon the momentum flux ratio between the injector and core jet. Maximum reductions of approximately 5.5 dB OASPL have been observed with practical mass flow rates and injection pressures. The first measurements with fluidic inserts in the presence of a forward flight stream have been performed. Optimal noise reduction occurs at similar injector parameters in the presence of forward flight. Fluidic inserts in the presence of a forward flight stream were observed to reduce the peak mixing noise below the already reduced levels by nearly 4 dB OASPL and the broadband shock-associated noise by nearly 3 dB OASPL. Unsteady velocity measurements are used to complement acoustic results of jets with fluidic inserts. Measured axial turbulence intensities and mean axial velocity are examined to illuminate the differences in the flow field from jets with fluidic inserts. Comparisons of laser Doppler measurements with RANS CFD simulations are shown with good agreement. Analysis of the effect of spatial turbulence on the measured quantities is performed. Experimental model scale measurements of jets with and without fluidic inserts over a simulated carrier deck are presented. The model carrier environment consists of a ground plane of adjustable distance below the jet, and a simulated jet blast deflector similar to those found in practice. Measurements are performed with far-field microphones, near-field microphones, and unsteady pressure sensors. The constructive and destructive interference that results from the interaction of the direct and reflected sound waves is observed and compared with results from free jets. The noise reduction of fluidic inserts in a realistic carrier deck environment with steering of the ``quiet planes'' is examined. The overall sound pressure level in heat-simulated jets is reduced by 3-5 dB depending on the specific angle and ground plane height. Jets impinging upon a modeled jet blast deflector are tested in addition to jets solely in the presence of the carrier deck. Observed modifications to the acoustic field from the presence of the jet blast deflector include downstream acoustic shielding and low frequency augmentation. The region of maximum noise radiation for heat-simulated jets from nozzles with fluidic inserts impinging on the jet blast deflector is reduced in overall sound pressure level by 4-7 dB. This region includes areas where aircraft carrier personnel are located.