Effect of Manganese Doping on PIN-PMN-PT Single Crystals for High Power Applications

Open Access
Sahul, Raffi
Graduate Program:
Materials Science and Engineering
Doctor of Philosophy
Document Type:
Date of Defense:
June 24, 2014
Committee Members:
  • Wenwu Cao, Committee Chair
  • Shujun Zhang, Committee Chair
  • Michael T Lanagan, Committee Member
  • Bernhard R Tittmann, Committee Member
  • Relaxor-PT ferroelectrics
  • Doped Ternary Single Crystal
  • High Power Applications
  • Engineered Domain Configurations
Single crystals based on relaxor-lead titanate (relaxor-PT) solid solutions have advanced the world of piezoelectric materials for the past two decades with their giant piezoelectric properties achieved by domain engineered configurations. When single crystals of lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) solid solution in the rhombohedral phase were poled along [001]c direction with “4R” domain configuration, they exhibited high piezoelectric charge coefficient (d33 >2000 pC/N) and high electromechanical coupling (k33 >0.9) which led to their widespread use in advanced medical imaging systems and underwater acoustic devices. However, PMN-PT crystals suffer from low phase transition temperature (Trt ~85-95 °C) and lower coercive field (depolarizing electric field, Ec ~2-3 kV/cm). Lead indium niobate - lead magnesium niobate - lead titanate (PIN-PMN-PT) ternary single crystals formed by adding indium as another constituent exhibit higher coercive field (Ec ~5kV/cm) and higher Curie temperature (Tc >210 °C) than the binary PMN-PT crystals (Ec ~2.5 kV/cm and Tc <140 °C). When these ternary PIN-PMN-PT crystals are doped with manganese (Mn:PIN-PMN-PT), they behave like hard piezoelectric materials demonstrating an internal bias field (Ei ~0.8-1.6 kV/cm), leading to low elastic losses and high mechanical Q-factor (Qm >600) compared to the undoped binary crystals (Qm of PMN-PT <150). Although the spontaneous polarization directions for these rhombohedral crystals are in the <111>c directions, the giant piezoelectric effect (d33 >2000 pC/N for PMN-PT) occurs in the [001]c poled crystals, which is attributed to the polarization rotation mechanisms. Hence, domain engineering configurations induced by poling these crystals in orientations other than their polarization axis are critical for achieving large piezoelectric effects. Based on the phase diagram of these solid solutions, with the increase in PT content beyond the rhombohedral phase region, orthorhombic/monoclinic and tetragonal phases are formed. In the orthorhombic and tetragonal phases, the spontaneous polarization directions are in the [011]c and [001]c directions respectively. Similar to the “4R” domain configuration achieved in [001]c poled rhombohedral crystals, other domain configurations can be achieved by poling the single crystals in different orientations, leading to multitude of properties that are useful for various specified applications. The unique properties and configurations arise from the large anisotropy of the single crystalline materials and various polarization rotation mechanisms that are associated with these multi-domain configurations. This dissertation is focused on the properties of manganese doped PIN-PMN-PT ternary single crystals in the rhombohedral phase. By poling them in either [001]c, [011]c, or [111]c, 4R, 2R or 1R domain configuration can be achieved respectively. Longitudinal vibration mode, d33, or k33 is the most useful mode from 4R configuration. The “2R” domain state is obtained by poling the rhombohedral phase crystal along [011]c crystallographic direction. Investigation of “2R” Mn:PIN-PMN-PT single crystals and their properties lead to unique resonance modes (d32, “2R d15”, and d36’) that are very useful and relevant to practical applications. Considering the large anisotropy and various symmetries exhibited by these crystals, full set of dielectric, piezoelectric, and elastic properties are extremely critical to understand different modes and their overall behavior in devices. Inconsistencies in full set of properties may be caused by complex methods involved in performing characterization measurements and also inhomogeneity among samples used for the measurements. Due to the large number of coefficients that need to be determined for full property material data, a methodology combining resonance and ultrasound methods is the most widely used technique for consistent measurement of full set properties for these materials. Full property measurements (elastic, dielectric, and piezoelectric) for the “2R” Mn:PIN-PMN-PT single crystal poled into orthorhombic mm2 macroscopic symmetry ([011]c poled crystals) and for “4R” configuration ([001]c poled crystals) were conducted and the data was analyzed based on their macroscopic crystallographic symmetry. Full property data was measured for the 1R configuration of the Mn:PIN-PMN-PT single crystal to understand the monodomain properties and the orientation dependence of dielectric, elastic, and piezoelectric properties. Domain averaging and matrix transformation was performed with the monodomain data to calculate 4R data and compare with that of experimental 4R data. Orientation dependence of the properties is also presented to understand the crystallographic directions that are best suited for the various applications. The high sensitivity of PMN-PT and the high Qm of Mn:PIN-PMN-PT provide designers with soft and hard piezoelectric material choices in the relaxor-PT single crystals family. While much work has been done on PMN-PT crystals, research efforts on the Mn:PIN-PMN-PT crystals are limited. Investigation of the Qm for Mn-doped crystals under high power drive conditions is essential for the practical application of these crystals for devices. High power characteristics of the Mn:PIN-PMN-PT single crystals were measured with emphasis on specific modes (transverse mode, d32, and face shear mode, d36’) based on a constant vibration velocity method using a high power characterization system (HiPoCs), and the degradation of Qm as a function of vibration velocity was studied in order to understand the self heating behavior and device limitations. Practical devices that are useful for various applications were designed and performance of these prototype devices was quantitatively evaluated. This thesis work provides a concrete advancement in the understanding of doped ternary relaxor-PT ferroelectric single crystals and the influence of their domain engineered configurations on their properties. The emphasis is on vibration modes related to piezoelectric vibrators with the multi-domain single crystals having macroscopic mm2 symmetry. In the last chapter, limitations and future perspectives are also discussed.