Devlopment of a personal values scale and non-asian tourists' preferred attributes for a one day Seoul tour package: A discrete choice experiment

Open Access
Lee, Won Seok
Graduate Program:
Recreation, Park and Tourism Management
Doctor of Philosophy
Document Type:
Date of Defense:
October 15, 2013
Committee Members:
  • Alan R Graefe, Dissertation Advisor
  • Deborah Lee Kerstetter, Committee Member
  • Garry Chick, Committee Member
  • Richard C Ready, Committee Member
  • Values
  • Choice Experiment
  • Marginal willingness to pay
The purpose of this study is (1) to develop cross-cultural value measurement scales that overcome established methodological problems, (2) to test dimensional frameworks of the scale with non-Asian respondents, and (3) to show whether those who have different value orientations hold heterogeneous preferences regarding tour packages. Drawing on literature from the fields of psychology and marketing, this study hypothesizes that cultural values are tied to tourists’ distinct tour package preferences. The study applies a mixed-method approach to observe intrinsic nationally-distinct values and develop a generalized values measurement scale. The dimensional frameworks of the developed values scale were then used with a Stated Preference Choice Experiment (CE) to capture the systematic heterogeneity of preferences in a non-Asian tourists group. The results of the CE show the Marginal Willingness to Pay (MWTP) pecuniary value for the attributes’ changes by one unit for multiple attributes of Seoul tour packages. This study’s results partially support the link between respondent values and heterogeneous choice behaviors. The results show that a respondent who emphasizes money and enjoyment and authenticity values is more likely to choose a package tour that includes more chances to go to shopping and historical/cultural sites, respectively. Historical/cultural destinations had the highest MWTP value of all tour sites in Seoul, which was estimated to be $74.32. “Local food served,” “Modern sightseeing sites,” “Shopping tour sites” and “Entertainment tour sites” were also significant tour attribute/destinations that increase the number of Seoul package tours purchased. An increase of one unit of “Local food served,” “Modern sightseeing sites,” “Shopping tour sites,” and “Entertainment tour sites” was worth $37.98, $ 54.64, $24.05, and $28.34, respectively. The study contributes to tourism research by introducing a values measurement scale that identifies value orientations relevant when planning international trips and developing heterogeneous travel profiles.