AN ANALYSIS OF THE CAUSES OF SHADOW EDUCATION IN THE ERA OF THE SCHOOLED SOCIETY

Open Access
Author:
Kim, Hyung-kee
Graduate Program:
Educational Theory and Policy
Degree:
Doctor of Philosophy
Document Type:
Dissertation
Date of Defense:
August 28, 2013
Committee Members:
  • David P Baker, Dissertation Advisor
  • David P Baker, Committee Chair
  • Soo Yong Byun, Committee Member
  • Roger C Shouse, Committee Member
  • Edgar Paul Yoder, Committee Member
Keywords:
  • Shadow education
  • private tutoring
  • hakwon
  • formal schooling
  • formal education
  • public school
  • public schools
  • afterschool class
  • afterschool programs
  • NCLB
  • Baker
  • Bray
  • Institution
  • supplementary institution
  • ritual
  • parental satisfaction
  • enrichment motive
  • enrichment strategy
  • remedial motive
  • remedial strategy
  • out of school lesson
  • out-of-school lesson
  • out of school class
  • out-of-school class
  • ESCS
  • achievements
  • achievement score
  • SES
  • private internal rate
  • IRR
  • wage premium
  • return of educational investment
  • conflict theory
  • status competition
  • higher education expansion
  • human capital theory
  • functionalism
  • neo-institutionalism
  • Schofer and Meyer
  • Meyer
  • the expansion of higher education
  • Barro-Lee
  • GDP per capita
  • public social expenditure
  • welfare
  • welfare state
  • high-stakes testing
  • high-stakes test
  • school quality
  • quality of schooling
  • public educational expenditure
  • higher education enrollment
Abstract:
The aim of this study is to examine whether the expansion of higher education across countries is associated with the growth of shadow education as a function of families’ efforts to ensure attainment of educational opportunities. To address this research objective, this study samples approximately 163,000 students, nested in 21 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, who took the 2009 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). This study employs multilevel logistic regression in order to investigate the research question. An analysis of whether the relationship between the expansion of higher education and the use of shadow education is substantial after controlling for national- and individual-level variables follows. The current study found a significant, positive relationship between the expansion of higher education and shadow education use in academic subjects for 21 countries in terms of the average growth rate of the population with higher education between 1955 and 2005 (AGR). The relationship was substantial even after controlling for national- and individual-level variables. This means that a student in a country with a high AGR was more likely to participate in shadow education than a student in a country with low AGR. When higher education was institutionalized in terms of AGR, shadow education use increased as a supplementary tool to achieve academic success in public education. This study also supports previous findings that a female student from a family with high socioeconomic status (SES) was more likely to participate in shadow education than a male student from a family with low SES. The findings show that while high-stakes testing did not have a substantial relationship with shadow education use in analyses with 21 and 20 countries, public education expenditure was negatively associated with shadow education use in the analysis with 20 countries. Further, the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and the relative income between high school and college graduates did not have significant relationships with shadow education use in the analyses with 21 and 20 countries, respectively. Public social expenditure was negatively associated with shadow education use for 20 countries. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that economic and social benefits are not likely to be determinants of shadow education, while the institutionalization of higher education in terms of AGR is related with shadow education use. In other words, the findings support the assertion that neo-institutionalism can explain the growth of shadow education use in parallel with the expansion of higher education across 21 OECD countries, although the functionalism, human capitalism, and competitive theory perspectives seemed to explain the relationship. This study contributes to the research literature by expanding the empirical understanding and body of evidence for the relationship between shadow education use and the expansion of higher education and the characteristics of shadow education. In the present era of mass shadow education, shadow education is rapidly becoming a salient focus of education policy around the globe. This research can help policymakers better prepare relevant policy measures for increasing shadow education use in order to supplement academic deficits, particularly for low-achieving students from families with low SES.