The Prediction of Noise and Installation Effects of High-subsonic Dual-stream Jets in Flight

Open Access
Saxena, Swati
Graduate Program:
Aerospace Engineering
Doctor of Philosophy
Document Type:
Date of Defense:
July 25, 2012
Committee Members:
  • Philip John Morris, Dissertation Advisor
  • Dennis K Mclaughlin, Committee Member
  • Kenneth Steven Brentner, Committee Member
  • Victor Ward Sparrow, Committee Member
  • aeroacoustics
  • subsonic jet noise
  • dual-stream jets
  • forward flight
  • installation effects
  • turbulence modeling
  • DES
Both military and civil aircraft in service generate high levels of noise. One of the major contributors to this noise generated from the aircraft is the jet engine exhaust. This makes the study of jet noise and methods to reduce jet noise an active research area with the aim of designing quieter military and commercial aircraft. The current stringent aircraft noise regulations imposed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and other international agencies, have further raised the need to perform accurate jet noise calculations for more reliable estimation of the jet noise sources. The main aim of the present research is to perform jet noise simulations of single and dual-stream jets with engineering accuracy and assess forward flight effects on the jet noise. Installation effects such as caused by the pylon are also studied using a simplified pylon nozzle configuration. Due to advances in computational power, it has become possible to perform turbulent flow simulations of high speed jets, which leads to more accurate noise predictions. In the present research, a hybrid unsteady RANS-LES parallel multi-block structured grid solver called EAGLEJet is written to perform the nozzle flow calculations. The far-field noise calculation is performed using solutions to the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation. The present calculations use meshes with 5 to 11 million grid points and require about three weeks of computing time with about 100 processors. A baseline single stream convergent nozzle and a dual-stream coaxial convergent nozzle are used for the flow and noise analysis. Calculations for the convergent nozzle are performed at a high subsonic jet Mach number of Mj = 0.9, which is similar to the operating conditions for commercial aircraft engines. A parallel flow gives the flight effect, which is simulated with a co-flow Mach number, Mcf varying from 0.0 to 0.28. The grid resolution effects, statistical properties of the turbulence and the heated jet effects (TTR = 2.7) are studied and related to the noise characteristics of the jet. Both flow and noise predictions show good agreement with PIV and microphone measurements. The potential core lengths and nozzle wall boundary characteristics are studied to understand the differences between the numerical potential core lengths as compared to experiments. The flight velocity exponent, m is calculated from the noise reduction in overall sound pressure levels (OASPL, dB) and relative velocity (Vj - Vcf) at all jet inlet (angular) angles. The variation of the exponent, m at lower (50 deg. to 90 deg.) and higher aft inlet angles (120 deg. to 150 deg.) is studied and compared with available measurements. Previous studies have shown a different variation of the exponent with inlet angles while the current numerical data match well with recent experiments conducted on the same nozzle geometry. Today, turbofans are the most efficient engines in service used in almost all major commercial aircraft. Turbofans have a dual-stream exhaust nozzle with primary and secondary flow whose flow and noise characteristics are different from that of single stream jets. A Boeing-designed coaxial nozzle, with area ratio of As/Ap = 3.0, is used to study dual-stream jet noise in the present research. In this configuration, the primary nozzle extends beyond the secondary nozzle, which is representative of large turbofan engines in commercial service. The flow calculations are performed at high subsonic Mach numbers in the primary and secondary nozzles (Mpj = 0.85, Msj = 0.95) with heated core flow, TTRp = 2.26 and unheated fan flow, TTRs = 1.0. The co-flow of Mcf = 0.2 is used. The subscripts p, s and amb represent the primary (core) nozzle, the secondary (fan) nozzle, and the ambient flow conditions, respectively. The statistical properties in the primary and secondary shear layers are studied and compared with those of the single stream jets. It has been found that the eddy convection velocity is lower in dual-stream jets as compared to the single stream jet operating at a similar jet exit Mach number. The phase velocity is higher in the secondary shear layer as compared to primary shear layer. The noise measurements agree well with the predicted data and noise reduction is observed in the presence of co-flow. The variation of the flight velocity exponent is calculated as a function of nozzle inlet angle. The value of the exponent at higher inlet angles is lower as compared to the single stream jets. This suggests that the noise levels are less affected in the peak noise direction in the presence of co-flow in dual-stream jets as compared to single stream jets. Two reference velocities: primary jet exit velocity Vpj and mixed velocity Vmix are considered which result in different absolute values of the exponents. Scaling of the jet spectra is performed at different inlet angles and good collapse has been obtained between the spectra. The installation effects on jet noise are studied using a simplified pylon structure with a dual-stream nozzle. In the presence of a pylon, the azimuthal symmetry of the nozzle is lost and thus the flow characteristics are different as compared to the baseline nozzle. This will result in different noise characteristics of the installed jet.