Restricted (Penn State Only)
Alipour, Kent K
Graduate Program:
Doctor of Philosophy
Document Type:
Date of Defense:
May 15, 2018
Committee Members:
  • Susan Mohammed, Dissertation Advisor
  • Susan Mohammed, Committee Chair
  • James Marshall Lebreton, Committee Member
  • Samuel Todd Hunter, Committee Member
  • Vilmos Fosnocht Misangyi, Outside Member
  • Time
  • temporal
  • leadership
  • scale construction
  • nomological network
The purposes of this study were to (1) expand the conceptualization of temporal leadership, (2) develop a new multidimensional temporal leadership scale, (3) establish the predictors and outcomes of multidimensional temporal leadership, and (4) demonstrate the utility of the new multidimensional temporal leadership measure beyond existing leadership measures. Based on functional leadership theory, five dimensions of temporal leadership were derived: Temporal monitoring, temporal intervention, temporal modeling, temporal encouragement, and temporal direction setting. This study yielded three key findings. First, evidence across several studies supported strong psychometric properties of the new multidimensional temporal leadership scale. Specifically, the proposed five-factor hierarchical model consistently demonstrated a better fit to the data than alternative models. Not only did the newly developed measure have its theorized factor structure replicated across four studies, but the measure also consistently exhibited high reliability. Second, convergent and discriminant validity were established, in addition to previously unexplored antecedents of temporal leadership. That is, leaders’ time management and conscientiousness were both found to positively predict temporal leadership behaviors. Third, demonstrating criterion-related validity, temporal leadership uniquely predicted key work-related outcomes beyond well-established leadership measures. Temporal leadership was positively related to subordinates’ job performance, and negatively related to subordinates’ production deviance and perceptions of leader-follower temporal conflict. Notably, multidimensional temporal leadership added incrementally to the prediction of leader-follower temporal conflict, subordinate production deviance, and subordinate job performance beyond the effects of transformational leadership, initiating structure, consideration, and team temporal leadership. Based on evidence across multiple independent samples of employees, results support the use of the multidimensional temporal leadership measure as a psychometrically sound and uniquely predictive leadership assessment tool. Keywords: Time, temporal, leadership, scale construction, nomological network