Open Access
Arora, Amit
Graduate Program:
Materials Science and Engineering
Doctor of Philosophy
Document Type:
Date of Defense:
September 01, 2011
Committee Members:
  • Prof Tarasankar Deb Roy, Dissertation Advisor
  • Tarasankar Debroy, Committee Chair
  • Long Qing Chen, Committee Member
  • Kwadwo Osseo Asare, Committee Member
  • Panagiotis Michaleris, Committee Member
  • Todd Palmer, Committee Member
  • friction stir welding
  • tool design
  • stresses
  • theromechanical modeling
Friction stir welding has been commercially used as a joining process for aluminum and other soft materials. However, the use of this process in joining of hard alloys is still developing primarily because of the lack of cost effective, long lasting tools. Here I have developed numerical models to understand the thermo mechanical conditions experienced by the FSW tool and to improve its reusability. A heat transfer and visco-plastic flow model is used to calculate the torque, and traverse force on the tool during FSW. The computed values of torque and traverse force are validated using the experimental results for FSW of AA7075, AA2524, AA6061 and Ti-6Al-4V alloys. The computed torque components are used to determine the optimum tool shoulder diameter based on the maximum use of torque and maximum grip of the tool on the plasticized workpiece material. The estimation of the optimum tool shoulder diameter for FSW of AA6061 and AA7075 was verified with experimental results. The computed values of traverse force and torque are used to calculate the maximum shear stress on the tool pin to determine the load bearing ability of the tool pin. The load bearing ability calculations are used to explain the failure of H13 steel tool during welding of AA7075 and commercially pure tungsten during welding of L80 steel. Artificial neural network (ANN) models are developed to predict the important FSW output parameters as function of selected input parameters. These ANN consider tool shoulder radius, pin radius, pin length, welding velocity, tool rotational speed and axial pressure as input parameters. The total torque, sliding torque, sticking torque, peak temperature, traverse force, maximum shear stress and bending stress are considered as the output for ANN models. These output parameters are selected since they define the thermo-mechanical conditions around the tool during FSW. The developed ANN models are used to understand the effect of various input parameters on the total torque and traverse force during FSW of AA7075 and 1018 mild steel. The ANN models are also used to determine tool safety factor for wide range of input parameters. A numerical model is developed to calculate the strain and strain rates along the streamlines during FSW. The strain and strain rate values are calculated for FSW of AA2524. Three simplified models are also developed for quick estimation of output parameters such as material velocity field, torque and peak temperature. The material velocity fields are computed by adopting an analytical method of calculating velocities for flow of non-compressible fluid between two discs where one is rotating and other is stationary. The peak temperature is estimated based on a non-dimensional correlation with dimensionless heat input. The dimensionless heat input is computed using known welding parameters and material properties. The torque is computed using an analytical function based on shear strength of the workpiece material. These simplified models are shown to be able to predict these output parameters successfully.